One Health Surveillance
60% of the infectious diseases and 75% of the emerging ones are of animal origin. Out of the five new human infectious diseases detected each year, three are of animal origin. Thus an effective surveillance requires close cooperation between public health, animal health and environmental health authorities in a One Health approach promoted by the World organization for Animal Health and the World Health Organization (OIE and WHO).
Within this framework, the network SEGA One Health developed several surveillance systems of zoonotic diseases at both the regional and national level.
Regional antibiotic resistance surveillance
The antibioresistance is a federative theme which concerns all sectors, public health, animal health, and environmental health. Therefore a regional One Health surveillance within the Member States of COI targets Enterobacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs).
Rabies surveillance and control program in Madagascar
Human deaths related to rabies are reported every year in Madagascar as well as outbreaks among animals whether among dogs or cattle. The Ministry of Public health together with the Ministry of Livestock and the Indian ocean Commission collaborate for implementing an integrated surveillance and control program in 3 pilot districts.
Health facilities, medical district managers, anti-rabies centres, the veterinaries and their teams are all involved in the program. At the central level the reference laboratory is based at the Pasteur Institute. The program is conducted by the surveillance department of the Ministry of Health and the Veterinary services.
The first results are positive with an early detection of the outbreaks, contacts identified and receiving appropriate prevention measures, and efficient actions taken to control wild dogs.
Rift Valley fever (RVF) and Q fever in Comoros
Rift Valley fever (RVF) and Q fever are two abortive diseases of small ruminants, they can affect man, and are endemic endemic diseases in all regions of Comoros.
The Ministry of Health authorities requested the support of the network SEGA One Health to set up a One Health surveillance of these two diseases.
Since January 2016, the surveillance system is operational both for public and animal health.
Cysticercosis and West Nile Fever in Madagascar
Besides these surveillance systems, operations research on Cysticercosis and West Nile fever is conducted in Madagascar in partnership with CIRAD and FOFIFA/DRZVP. The first objective is to better describe the epidemiology of these diseases.
Public Health Surveillance
SEGA One health Publi health surveillance Strategy
The outbreaks may have tremendous socio-economic impacts at country level. The crisis of chikungunya which struck the countries of IOC in 2006 affected more than 1 million people and had an estimated direct and indirect cost of more than 100 M€. The epidemic of conjunctivitis in 2015 affected more than 190 000 persons and cost an estimated 3 M€ in Reunion Island.
Taking into account, increasing trade, tourism industry and growing number of travellers, the Indian ocean islands are vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks.
It is then critical for these countries to rely on proper surveillance systems and response capacity in accordance with the international health Regulation (2005).
In addition the IOC Health Intelligence Unit promotes and runs systematic health information sharing between the 5 countries through weekly web-conferences.
Key infectious diseases under surveillance
Arboviroses (dengue, chikungunya, zika, RVF)
Animal health surveillance
Strategy of the network with regard of animal diseases surveillance
Beside the diseases which are transmissible to human (zoonoses), the major concern for the veterinary services are the diseases having an important economic impact. As a matter of fact these diseases can decimate huge proportions of the livestock.
Among these priority animal diseases to monitor, there are those which are of regional importance because they are classified among the transborder diseases, with fast spreading capacity and/or considerable economic impact. Among these diseases of regional importances, some are not yet reported in the islands of the south-west of the Indian Ocean but are under vigilance because of their threats.
As a reminder let us mention the 60% drop of the porcine population in Madagascar during the introduction of the African swine fever in 1998, and the 80% losses of pigs population in Maurice in 2007 for a comparable epizooty.
The priority diseases under surveillance in animal health
- Avian influenzae
- Newcastle disease
- Foot and mouth disease
- Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
- Ovine rinderpest
- African swine fever
- Rift valley fever
- Bovine lumpy skin disease
In parallel other diseases are under surveillance in relation with country specificities, for instance anthrax diseases in Madagascar, the theileriose for the Comoros or the caprine contagious pleuropneumonie for Maurice. The diseases transmitted by the ticks, like the babésioses, Anaplasmose and the cowdriose are also monitored in all the countries.